National Strategies | U.S. Government Reports
National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats (2009)
The 2009 National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats outlines the U.S. Government’s approach to reducing the risks of biological weapons proliferation and bioterrorism. The strategy highlights the beneficial nature of advances in the life sciences and their importance in combating infectious diseases of natural, accidental, and deliberate origin. It also indicates the need for tailored actions to prevent and mitigate biological threats. The strategy emphasizes promoting global health security, reinforcing norms of responsible conduct, reducing the potential for exploitation, strengthening attribution, and utilizing communication and education domestically and abroad.
National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (2006)
The 2006 National Strategy for Combating Terrorism presents a comprehensive approach to prevent and mitigate potential terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). It focuses on determining terrorist intentions, denying access to materials and expertise, deterrence, disrupting attempted movement of WMD-related materials, prevention, response, and attribution.
National Defense Strategy of the United States of America (2005)
The 2005 National Defense Strategy employs an active, layered approach to address the defense of the United States, and seeks to create conditions that help secure international order. This strategy promotes close cooperation with other entities around the world committed to these goals while addressing old and emerging threats.
National Defense Strategy (2008)
The 2008 National Defense Strategy outlines how the Department of Defense will meet the objectives of the 2006 National Security Strategy, “including the need to strengthen alliances and build new partnerships to defeat global terrorism and prevent attacks against us, our allies, and our friends; prevent our enemies from threatening us, our allies, and our friends with weapons of mass destruction (WMD); work with others to defuse regional conflicts, including conflict intervention; and transform national security institutions to face the challenges of the 21st century.” The 2006 National Security Strategy has been replaced by the 2010 National Security Strategy.
National Strategy for Homeland Security (2007)
The 2007 National Strategy for Homeland Security focuses on four activity areas to guide, organize, and unify U.S. security efforts to address the full range of potential catastrophic events, including man-made and natural disasters. The four goals of the strategy are to prevent and disrupt terrorist attacks; protect the American people, critical infrastructure, and key resources; respond to and recover from incidents when they do occur; and strengthen the foundation to ensure long-term success.
National Health Security Strategy (2009)
The 2009 National Health Security Strategy is intended to guide “the Nation’s efforts to minimize the risks associated with a wide range of potential large-scale incidents that put the health and well-being of the Nation’s people at risk…. In this context, national health security is achieved when the Nation and its people are prepared for, protected from, respond effectively to, and able to recover from incidents with potentially negative health consequences.”
National Security Strategy (2010)
The 2010 National Security Strategy recognizes the fundamental connection between national security, national competitiveness, resilience, and moral example. It also reaffirms America’s commitment to pursue U.S. interests through an international system in which all nations have certain rights and responsibilities. The Strategy’s areas of focus include: strengthening domestic security and resilience; addressing violent extremism globally; reversing the spread of nuclear and biological weapons; securing cyberspace; investing in U.S. prosperity through innovation, growth, and human capital development; and participating in international cooperative mechanisms.
National Research and Development Strategy for Microbial Forensics (2009)
The purpose of the National Strategy to Support Microbial Forensic Research is to guide and focus the research efforts of the US Government to advance the discipline of microbial forensics and provide the nation with the most scientifically sound and statistically defensible capability to provide scientific data to support attribution investigations of a potential or actual biological attack.
National Response Framework (NRF)
The NRF is a guide to how the Nation conducts all-hazards response. It is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation, linking all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. It is intended to capture specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.
Biological Incident Annex
The purpose of the Biological Incident Annex to the National Response Framework is to outline the actions, roles, and responsibilities associated with response to a human disease outbreak of known or unknown origin requiring Federal assistance. In this document, a biological incident includes naturally occurring biological diseases (communicable and noncommunicable) in humans as well as terrorist events. This definition also includes those biological agents found in the environment, or diagnosed in animals, that have the potential for transmission to humans (zoonosis). Incidents that are restricted to animal, plant, or food health or safety are reviewed in other annexes. Actions described in this annex take place with or without a Presidential Stafford Act declaration or a public health emergency declaration by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS). This annex outlines biological incident response actions including threat assessment notification procedures, laboratory testing, joint investigative/response procedures, and activities related to recovery. The Biological Incident Annex is available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf_BiologicalIncidentAnnex.pdf. All other annexes to the National Response Framework are available at: http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nrf/
U.S. Government Reports
Federal Expert Security Advisory Panel: Recommendations Concerning the Select Agent Program (2011)
EO 13546 established the Federal Expert Security Advisory Panel (FESAP) to make technical and substantive recommendations to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the U.S. Attorney General concerning the appropriate safeguard and security standards for persons possessing, using, or transferring biological select agents or toxins commensurate with the risk that such agents or toxins pose to public health and safety, to animal and plant health, and animal and plant products; including the risk of their use in domestic or international terrorism.
Trans-Federal Task Force on Optimizing Biosafety and Biocontainment Oversight
The Task Force on Optimizing Biosafety and Biocontainment Oversight analyzed the current framework for research oversight activities involving infectious agents and toxins in high and maximum containment research facilities, and recommend improvements without hindering the progress of science.
Report of the Working Group on Strengthening the Biosecurity of the United States (2009)
The Working Group on Strengthening the Biosecurity of the United States, established by Executive Order (EO) 13486 in 2009, reviewed existing policies and practices in place at federal and non-federal facilities that conduct research on; manage clinical or environmental laboratory operations involving; or handle, store or transport Biological Select Agents and Toxins (BSAT). The working group’s report describes key findings and recommendations related to the possession, use, and transfer of Select Agents and Toxins, including the Select Agent Regulations (the current Select Agent list, issues regarding inventory management, and federal and local oversight and inspection programs at relevant facilities), issues related to personnel security, physical security, and the transportation of BSAT.