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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Federal support for state and local response operations

Flint, Michigan, Water Contamination Crisis

February 5, 2016

Federal agencies are working diligently to support state and city officials in responding to the Flint, Michigan, water crisis. Since this problem is primarily a public health crisis, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has been designated the lead federal agency responsible for coordinating the federal response and recovery efforts.
This means that HHS is working across the federal partners from across the U.S. government to mobilize the capabilities and resources of existing programs. Federal agency partners include: the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Environmental Protection Agency, Small Business Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of Education, and the Department of Agriculture.
These agencies are supporting the state and city in:

  • identifying the size and scope of the problem and
  • making and executing a plan to mitigate the short- and long-term health effects of lead exposure.

All efforts to date are allowable under the Department’s statutory and regulatory authority. 

To help the state in ensuring a safe water supply and provide immediate access to safe water:

  • EPA is working with state and local officials to conduct water testing and to reduce lead levels in tap water and provide safe drinking water to the residents of Flint. UPDATE: On Thursday (2/4/2016), EPA announced that recent tests show that lead-removal filters are working as expected in Flint homes with high lead levels.

Ongoing or Completed:

  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is working with state and local officials in encouraging Flint residents to take steps to remove debris that may have accumulated in faucet aerators, hot water heaters, and whole-house water filtration systems since this debris can affect water quality including lead levels.
  • EPA teams are collecting drinking water samples from Flint homeowners to better understand how lead is behaving in the plumbing in their homes and to ensure proper corrosion control is being restored in the drinking water system in order to lower lead levels. The samples are sent to an EPA laboratory for analysis and the preliminary results are shared with individual homeowners and posted to a publicly accessible website.  
  • NSF-International certified lead-removal filters are being distributed in Flint by the State of Michigan to remove lead from household water and make it safe for people to drink. These filters are certified by NSF for use with water containing lead levels up to 150 parts per billion. Residents are encouraged to have their home water tested. EPA began sampling drinking water in households with known lead levels of 100 parts per billion or higher, in order to verify the effectiveness of these filters at removing lead at high concentrations.
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)-funded agency on aging in Michigan is organizing local meetings and distributing water bottles and water filters to home-delivered meal recipients. The agency is coordinating with Genesee County to assist seniors who need help installing water filters.
  • EPA is also working with drinking water system operators at the City of Flint treatment plant. EPA is collecting chlorine samples at locations throughout the city system, with a focus on locations that would be the most likely to have lower chlorine levels. EPA will continue to collect samples to ensure that chlorine concentrations in the system are sufficient. EPA is posting preliminary water quality data about chlorine levels in Flint’s drinking water, as well as an interactive map of sampling results in Flint. The map includes data from initial chlorine testing, and as additional and final data becomes available, EPA will post the sampling locations (not addresses) and data to the map. The map is available at In locations where chlorine is not detected, EPA conducts follow-up testing for microbial contamination. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has information about chlorine and health available for the public.
  • EPA is inspecting homeowner drinking water systems to determine the presence or absence of lead service lines in the water distribution system as it prepares for additional residential sampling.
  • The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is providing bottled water, water filters, filter cartridges, water test kits, and other necessary items to the state of Michigan under the emergency declaration. At the request of the State, FEMA so far has provided 1,690,494 liters of water, 127,764 water filter replacement cartridges, and 40,000 water and pitcher filters. 
  • EPA is conducting an audit of the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) drinking water program to examine MDEQ's implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and related rules on lead and copper, total coliform, nitrates and ground water.
  • During the week of January 17, EPA issued a Safe Drinking Water Act Emergency Order to ensure the state and city immediately take actions necessary to protect public health. The Safe Drinking Water Act Emergency Order requires the State of Michigan and City of Flint to take a series of immediate steps to address the drinking water contamination in Flint.
  • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) helped the city secure funding for the purchase and installation of water filters.
  • In mid-October, the EPA established a Flint Safe Drinking Water Task Force comprised of EPA scientists who are internationally recognized experts in the field of lead in drinking water. The EPA Task Force is providing technical assistance to MDEQ and the City of Flint to implement corrosion control treatment and to develop school and residential sampling protocols.   

To help the state address near-term physical and mental health needs of children, pregnant women and families potentially impacted by lead-contaminated water:

  • HHS’ Administration for Children and Families is working with the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services regarding using Temporary Assistance for Needy Families non-recurrent, short-term benefits to help eligible Flint families. These could include short-term (i.e., 4 months or less) payments or vouchers to low-income families with children for purchase of bottled water; and gas cards/bus passes for these families.

Ongoing or Completed:

  • HHS dispatched a team of nine U.S. Public Health Service Officers to help staff the Genesee County Health Department’s public information line, increasing the short-term capacity of the information line, and work with the county’s staff to develop additional materials needed to answer callers’ questions. Commissioned Corps officers also will help state authorities develop information materials that will be distributed to Flint residents.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) updated a safety message reminding consumers not to use unapproved chelating products. Products may be available over the counter or from online retailers. These products claim to remove lead from the body but none have been approved by FDA for this use.
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) provided the Michigan Department of Education (MDE) a list of items available through USDA Foods that are rich in Vitamin C, iron, and calcium, highlighting the percent daily value of these nutrients. USDA Foods are healthy, high quality, 100 percent American-produced foods distributed to schools, food banks and other meal service providers to help stretch tight budgets and feed millions of Americans in need every year. This list will help MDE, the state administering agency for USDA’s TEFAP (The Emergency Food Assistance Program), manage its inventory and deliver USDA Foods high in the targeted nutrients to the Flint food bank. The Flint food bank will then distribute the USDA Foods to their member food pantries, soup kitchens and other agencies.
  • EPA established a High Lead Homes Strike Team to obtain grab samples at homes with the highest lead levels.
  • FDA is advising residents to not take products to treat lead in the body because there are no FDA-approved such products.
  • USDA’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is allowing participants to use WIC vouchers for ready-to-feed infant formula, which does not need to be mixed with water. Participants also can swap powdered formula for ready-to-feed formula. WIC participants are being referred to the local health department for lead screenings and provided nutrition education on mitigating lead absorption through dietary changes.
  • On January 25, USDA approved the Michigan Department of Education’s $62,700 request in additional funds for the USDA Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Program. These funds can be used to help affected schools purchase foods high in Vitamin C. Foods high in Vitamin C are among the foods recommended by the CDC that may help keep lead out of the body, along with foods high in calcium and iron.
  • The HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response is using existing resources to help state health officials identify vulnerable populations in Flint who may need further targeted outreach and assistance.
  • The Disaster Distress Helpline, sponsored by the HHS Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), is available to provide crisis counseling and support to people – including children and families in Flint – who are experiencing emotional distress related to natural or human-caused disasters.  Residents can call (800) 985-5990 or text TalkWithUs to 66746 to connect with a trained crisis counselor.  

To assist the state, city and residents in understanding the potential impacts lead can have on health:
Ongoing or Completed:

  • The National Library of Medicine, part of the National Institutes of Health, developed the Lead in the Flint, Michigan Water Supply Resource Guide to provide professionals, scientists and members of the public with easy access to information on the health effects of lead and lead exposure in vulnerable populations. The guide incorporates links to a variety of local, state, and federal resources, including Flint specific information. The library will continue to update and maintain this resource guide, adding new topics as needed and new links as they become available. 
  • USDA continues coordinating increased nutrition education efforts in Flint among the state administered USDA Food and Nutrition Service program providers [e.g., Child and Adult Care Food Program, SNAP Nutrition Education, food banks], community-based partner organizations and farmers’ markets on important foods to consume to mitigate lead absorption. USDA nutrition programs provide not just nutritious food but also nutrition education for a large number of Flint infants, children and adults. This education information ensures local schools and child care and day care operators serving meals under USDA school meals and its Child and Adult Care Food Program continue to provide children the healthiest possible meals and share information with parents about preparing meals at home.  SNAP Nutrition Education funding (SNAP-Ed) and SNAP-authorized farmers markets help disseminate nutrition guidance and increase SNAP participants’ knowledge of how to optimize their diets.
  • To date, SNAP-Ed has distributed over 10,000 copies of nutrition-lead resources in the Flint area. Additional booklets are being printed, with revised recipes for the next wave of distribution, as well as, a Spanish version. This information captures not only the target foods to mitigate lead absorption but also provides helpful information on other food resources for Flint residents.
  • The CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is providing technical assistance to the state on lead exposure, water sampling protocols, and home inspections. CDC and ASTDR are working with the state to determine the number of children exposed to lead in Flint to ensure that children who should be screened are getting screened. 
  • FDA’s local office assessed potential impacts on FDA-regulated industries in the Flint area, including human food and animal feed production. No impacts were found, and FDA continues to assess and monitor the situation.
  • HHS is working with the State of Michigan and the local health department to develop a health monitoring plan for the City of Flint to understand the extent of potential lead exposure.
  • HHS deployed experts to Flint to provide public health assistance in the areas of health surveillance and monitoring, behavioral health, and risk communications.
  • HHS Health Resources and Services Administration-funded health centers in the Flint area are offering lead testing, conducting outreach and educational sessions, and providing primary care and behavioral health services to their patients and communities.
  • The HHS Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) are working with their grantees in the area to disseminate public health education through Head Start, Community Health Centers and other programs to help families understand the risks of lead in the water, encouraging residents to have their children screened, and assisting families in obtaining screening for their children. Medicaid regularly requires that all Medicaid-eligible children up to age 6 be tested for lead poisoning; treatment for these children is covered under Medicaid. As a diagnostic benefit, home investigations for Medicaid-eligible children also are covered under Medicaid. The state can expedite enrollment into Medicaid for eligible children in need of immediate medical attention.
  • The National Institutes of Health has an expedited process for reviewing research proposals and funding grants to address environmental emergencies, such as the lead-contaminated water crisis in Flint. The NIH is soliciting these research proposals now. Additionally, the new NIH Disaster Research Response initiative is working to improve research tools, protocols, and training necessary to conduct time-critical health research in response to disasters.
  • HHS Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration are working with the state on plans to provide psychological first aid for school personnel, the faith-based community, and human service providers. These experts also are working the state to determine the need for increased screening for behavioral health disorders in the public health system to facilitate early intervention for those who might need additional support.

To support the state, city and residents in responding and recovering from the economic impact of this crisis:
Ongoing or Completed:

  • The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is working closely with the city on economic development and interagency coordination and successfully assisted the city with the purchase and installation of water filters. HUD had an existing lead hazard grant to Flint, targeted to lead paint, $325,000 of which can be used for addressing the water lead contamination. 
  • HUD also has provided a data tracking and reporting system for the State of Michigan to use in its lead investigations.
  • President Obama on January 22 announced $80 million available from the water infrastructure state revolving fund allocated to the State of Michigan as part of the President's enacted 2016 budget. The Administration has moved to ensure that money is available in Michigan immediately.
  • In 2014, Flint was identified as one of six target cities in the second round of the Strong Cities – Strong Communities White House initiative.  This program focuses on enhanced federal agency support in areas of blight reduction, public safety and economic development. Discussions are ongoing to identify opportunities for Departmental programs and initiatives to provide resources to help address the Flint water crisis and for collaboration through existing federal engagement with city, county and state agencies.

  • This page last reviewed: February 10, 2016